Sunday, 20 September 2020

Ereignis Centre for Philosophy and the Arts | ereignis.no/ | ereignis@tankebanen.no

Ereignis: the thought

Ereignis is a way to understand technology and our everyday world, an approach to life, and a distinct philosophy. We begin by unpacking the multiple meanings of the word; we then go on to identify a vision, an obstacle, and a new reality. In the end we ask to what service Ereignis can be put to enable us to become who we are.

1. The meaning of Ereignis

An event is an experience or a happening that fundamentally reconfigures the coordinates of our lives, as a trauma or as a thoroughly exhilarating moment, strictly dividing the “before” from the “after”.

Ereignis is a complex and intriguing word, even in the German. As a noun (an Ereignis) it basically means an unusual or special event, or, simply, something that has happened. However, when we investigate further we realise that there are vast arrays of potential meanings to this term. Synonyms suggested by the dictionary include occasion, interlude, opportunity, experience, happening, thing, and an event. At the etymological root of Ereignis we find that this is an event that is derived from the verb ereignen, designating something that plays itself out, as if by destiny.

One influential interpreter sought to distinguish the prefix er- from the stem eignen. It is when we consider eignen as a cognate of Augen that we get a sense in which ereignen is intimately connected to our vision, to what we see or have in our view. In German, the derived zueignen and aneignen means to acquire and appropriate respectively, and the verb eigen simply means to own. If an event only truly occurs when it is seen or observed, then what has happened can only be determined with by referring to what observers have called it to themselves, their interpretation, or appropriation, of the event.

To er-eignen, then, seems to mean to make something one’s own, in by appropriating it, acquiring it’s key meaning, or giving voice to its sense. This is important, because at the core of the eigen lies eigentlich, designating an event’s underlying cause, or its reality. In other words, what something really is, or what actually happens, can only come out through appropriation, of by distinguishing what it was that we experienced. This event, then, does not only refer to the happening itself, but crucially also to the act of making the event one’s own.

2. Philosophies of Ereignis: Heidegger, Schirmacher, Badiou

Ereignis is an experience and an approach to life. Our technological understanding of the world can bar us from this experience. Opening up for the multiplicity of reality we can rediscover the world as a sacred place.

2.1 Heidegger: nearness

A clearing is the sense we get when we approach a moment of serenity and profound insight.

There is no doubt that it was the game-changing philosophy of Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) that brought the term Ereignis onto the stage of modern thought. In an essay on the German poet Friedrich Hölderlin Heidegger described how it feels to descend from the mountainous Alps, the returning and homecoming, and in this essay he associates this descent with a mystical experience of Ereignis.

Heidegger gave the term Ereignis the task of connecting Being, or the divine, with our lives. To Heidegger Being reveals itself as a light which enables it to become visible to itself. Being, or the divinity, gives, sends, or destines beings, such as ourselves, in an ongoing unfolding of self-awareness. Heidegger thought of this double movement as Being alternately disclosing or refusing itself, or, in a word, as a “clearing-concealing.” Ereignis is a term to describe this sense in which Being is self-giving or self-refusing, or what Heidegger mystically referred to as the “Ereignis of presencing.”

The “It” of Being, or the Divine, is inaccessible to ordinary thinking; however we can come into its nearness through recollective, poetic thought.

To be present, then, or to experience a presencing, is in Heidegger’s terminology to be in the nearness of Being. When Heidegger held that this nearness nevertheless can never be fully present he began from the assertion that the German phrase Es gibt, there is, not merely points to an empty placeholder “Es,” it/there, but that it serves to highlight the giving of the Es, rendering the phrase as literally “It gives.” In so far as the “It” here refers to Being, the giving that is provided by it is its own presence. However, even Heidegger acknowledges that this “It” is inaccessible to ordinary thinking; therefore we should turn to the poets, and particularly the recollective verse of Hölderlin, to be brought into “Its” nearness.

2.2 Schirmacher: metaphysical technique

Now, what is the reason that we find ourselves removed from Being, at a distance from our own existence, in our daily lives? Heidegger was quite clear on this, referring to the reduction of the world from a place of transport and enchantment to an experience where we are oblivious to the things themselves as Gestell. Rather than a world revealing itself as a holy place, and the things within it as radiant, sacred beings, Gestell reduces things to mere resources that can only serve as means to ends. Wolfgang Schirmacher, a philosopher of technology, continues Heidegger’s thought to name this blockage “metaphysical technique,” a complex expression of attempts to dominate life by technical mastery, a technological fix which we often think of as either technological optimist, or utopianism.

Metaphysical technique reduces our world and other people to means to an end, making us oblivious to the things in themselves, seeking instead to dominate them by bringing the exterior world under our complete control.

Governed by an “instrumental prejudice,” Schirmacher writes, the metaphysical technique is an “ingenious expression of a technology of survival” where all objects, everything we encounter, are regarded with suspicion, as “potentially hostile.” This is why the dominant metaphysical technique seeks to bring the entirety of our external world “under control under all circumstances and by all means.” It is this naïve belief in technological supremacy which leads to the present explanation of all our shortcomings as a “lack of technology:” when our world is gradually brought to an end and destroyed with the aid of modern technology the often misunderstood response is to claim that it is not modern technology, or, rather metaphysical technique, that has brought this upon us, but the wrong use of instruments or an insufficient determination of their purpose; in this view our current fix is due to an incorrect application of technology. When metaphysical technique encounters failure its answer is to stubbornly pursue the same path with even more determination, and to explore and exploit further its beaten path of domination by technical knowledge.

Against this Schirmacher holds that the destructive effects of metaphysical technique cannot be defeated on its own ground, i.e. by further pursuing an accumulation of data, or positive knowledge. Technology, or, more precisely metaphysical technology, serves to conceal the world to us, and more knowledge of this kind will not reveal the world anew. In the words of Schirmacher:

If the concealment of technology is not revealed by knowledge, but paradoxically rather strengthened, only ignorance can help. Ignorance does not only mean the absence of knowledge, but indicates the Socratic admission of ignorance, which is to say a knowledge that deprives knowledge of its self-evident right.

What Schirmacher prescribes is the ancient philosophical cure: truth telling, but not as a simple mechanism to verify positive knowledge, but, rather, the Socratic model as an approach to life. Truth of this kind cannot ultimately be found by testing hypotheses but emerges from a technique in which “facts are shown as they are conceived by us.” Against metaphysical technique with its “emptiness artfully filled with an abstract language of evidence and justifications,” truth technique makes the world in its entirety appear in a glimpse, and yet as if eternally.

To overcome metaphysical technique it is required of us to pose an entirely different subject, or I, so that we again can enter into an essential and poetic relation to the world. Overcoming metaphysical technique does not mean that we leave modern technology behind, but that we abandon its use as “denizens of the night-time,” and instead treat machines and practice the sciences behind them as “dwellers of the radiant world of the Ereignis.”

Somewhere along this path we join in with others who have abandoned the cage of metaphysical technique, fellow travellers who seek to give up on exploitation and abuse so as to become guardians, custodians, and nurturers of beings, and, by implication of the Event itself. Our question is how we are going to conceive of Ereignis in this sense.

2.3 Badiou: the new reality

The void is at the core of our existence, an empty space around which our experiences evolve.

One way to approach this seminal Event is suggested by the philosophy of Alain Badiou. Here, the event is a way to understand how reality intrudes into our everyday experience. To Badiou reality is a void grounded in an inconsistent multiplicity, a structure which cannot ultimately be upheld in any social or personal totality. Therefore, countless elements of this reality are excluded from the totality we perceive as our everyday existence, and it is when any of these elements imposes itself upon us, engendering a complete shift in our structure of perception, that we truly can talk about an Event in Badiou’s sense.

To Badiou the event opens up our everyday appearance of normality, enabling a sudden opportunity to rethink our lives as a whole. Since the event can be compared to a ripping open in the fabric of established reality it offers exhilarating possibilities for participants that can nevertheless be experienced as demanding for those who are tasked with assimilating the event. In Badiou’s view a real event generates not only new ways of thinking about the world, but also new truths. What previously didn’t count, Badiou writes, comes to interrupt the continuity of determinism, thereby generating something completely new.

An inconsistent multiplicity lies at the core of reality and is generally hidden and concealed.

An utter reformulation of prevalent prejudices and assumptions cannot be programmed in advance. Rather, Badiou holds that a true event can only be grasped retrospectively and that it cannot have a presence. The event, in effect, suspends the chronology of time, becoming ubiquitous: at the moment of the event it is everywhere and nowhere. In other words, we cannot really realise an event until after it has passed, when we try our best to assimilate it into an opportunity we couldn’t have lived without.

3. Becoming who we are

Ereignis is about approaching the clearing, letting things stand out as they are, and the festive experience, i.e. the sense in which we let the world reveal itself as a sacred place. When we overcome metaphysical technology, an approach to life that only allows the world and others to appear as instruments or means to an end, we can again be brought into the nearness of a Being that gives and reveals itself. By returning to telling the truth we can experience the void of an inconsistent multiplicity that constitutes reality, and out of this void we can begin to rethink our lives and generate an entirely new reality.

It is when we regain this new ground we can begin to realise and become who we truly are. Thus is the experience of Ereignis.

 


Sunday, 6 September 2020

Building a new Personalist Website Using the Ideas and Values of Personalism

by David Jewson

 It must have been a couple of years ago that the committee of the British Personalist Forum decided to change from publishing their journal Appraisal in printed form to a completely on-line journal and I volunteered to try to update their website with a new version capable of on-line publishing.

The first thing I had to decide was whether it was worthwhile. I had come across Personalism quite by accident, having formed a friendship with Richard Allen, the founder of the forum. I spent my working life as a GP and had always known the importance of understanding people and helping them personally. It was important to understand patients as a whole and how their problems fitted into their lives. It was also important to them to have their personal stories understood. In many ways these things were even more important than the things I had learned at medical school. I soon realized that personalist philosophy connected exactly with the way I thought about the world and that it had valuable insights that were both interesting and practically useful. So, for example, John Macmurray’s studies on fellowship and friendship as both an important part of being human, but also as a practical political way forward and an alternative to materialism and the self as the important things in life, suddenly seemed to me quite obvious revelations. I now see personalism as reaching towards a solution to current human problems, something important, something that I emotionally feel to be good and worthwhile pursuing, and something that I want to do with other likeminded people.

I’m also interested in physics and consciousness. It is conventional to start with physics and material things and then try to explain consciousness from that starting point. However, I have found that it is actually much easier to start from consciousness, that is the personal world and how it changes, and explain physics from that starting point. That means I believe that personalism, as in the personal view, also has a great contribution to give to science in forming a coherent view of the world from the mess that physics currently is.

So, the answer was that, ‘yes’, I definitely though it was worthwhile to have a website that would allow people from across the world to express and publish their views on personalism and help develop what I think is both a dynamic and modern philosophy.

The next question was whether I would be able to do it. I am not naturally a completer-finisher, I like having ideas and will spend many happy hours thinking about things, but when it comes to putting them into action, that is completely different. I thought I could at least have a go. The other problem was that I didn’t know much about websites at all. Fortunately, technology came to my aid as building a website online is now extremely easy to do, even for a novice, with a variety of companies all offering good options. I chose Weebly as it had good reviews. Learning Weebly was very easy, which also means that, in the future, anyone could help me with the site, or even take it over completely if necessary. The site allows multiple editors and as many pages as you need, which would allow other personalists to have and edit their own pages on the site, which I hope is something that could happen in the future.

I was still able to use the address of our old website, www.britishpersonalistforum.org.uk, which was important for continuity and was able to add a wealth of material on the original site, a lot of which had been put together by Richard Allen, as well as all previous issues of Appraisal. This means it is already a good reference to use.

Becoming an on-line publisher has great advantages. Costs are minimal so we can now offer free on-line access and free publishing and should be able to maintain our website through donations. This gives access to personalists ideas to anyone who can access the internet completely free of charge. Authors can also publish articles without having to pay the exorbitant fees charged by some other journals. In this way, friends in the personalist community can share their ideas as friends; ideas freely given and freely received with the idea of helping each other, rather than making a profit.

I was able to take inspiration for the site design from other on-line journals, while trying to keep a simple consistent theme and make the website easy to use and had some valuable initial advice from Simon Smith. The site also has several advantages over a printed copy. Multimedia such as sound, video and colour pictures are easily added, so I have, for example, been able to add some video clips of Polanyi. All the articles on the site should be searchable from within the site but also using Google or other search engines. Philosophers trying to find out about personalism should be easily able to find our site from anywhere in the world and, by applying Google Translate, be able to translate it into any language. They should also be easily able to find authors and articles or even parts of articles by a standard google search.

It’s been an interesting time and there’s been a lot to learn. For example, if you want people to be able to find your site when they do an on-line search then you need to have your site ‘search engine optimized’ which means trying to find out the likely search phrases people will use. So, will they search for personalist philosophy or the philosophy of personalism or British personalists or British personalism or something else entirely? There have also been technical issues such as how to set up a store and on-line payments, but these have been steadily overcome. An option to be able to use PayPal has recently been added, for example.

Entirely against my own expectations, the web site is now up and running and we have posted the first on-line issue of Appraisal. We want to be an academic journal with the highest standards. We have already signed up several supporters and have had some generous donations. We now need some really good articles for our next Appraisal issue, so we need to let everyone know that we are up and running!

With lots of interesting ideas to explore and then thinking how they might apply to our ever-changing world; I think the journal and the site have a great future.

https://www.britishpersonalistforum.org.uk/